Skip to main content

Course Number: LIT 616a
Course Title: Eucharistic Theology
Term: Summer 2014

Professor

Daniel G. Van Slyke, S.T.L., Ph.D.

dvanslyke@holyapostles.edu

1. Course Description

The Second Vatican Council prescribes that sacred liturgy, at the heart of which is the Most Holy Eucharist, "is to be taught under its theological, historical, spiritual, pastoral, and juridical aspects” (Sacrosanctum concilium §16). This course responds to the Council's call by offering a thorough study of the Most Holy Sacrament of the Eucharist from the perspectives of sacramental theology, the development of doctrine, liturgical history, spirituality, liturgical law, and recent pastoral initiatives of the Magisterium.

2. Envisioned Learning Outcomes

  1. Students will demonstrate knowledge of major historical developments in eucharistic theology from Sacred Scripture and the early Christian period to the twenty-first century.
  2. Students will demonstrate an ability to recognize and correct various erroneous opinions regarding eucharistic theology which have arisen over the centuries.
  3. Students will demonstrate thorough familiarity with the de fide teachings of the Catholic Church on eucharistic theology, as those teachings are articulated in ecumenical councils and magisterial documents.
  4. Students will ability the ability to appropriate and use in discourse the Church’s formulae regarding and understanding of the Most Holy Sacrament of the Altar.
  5. Students will demonstrate an ability to find answers to questions regarding the theological and celebration of the Most Holy Sacrament.

3. REQUIRED READINGS and RESOURCES:

A. Books to Purchase

  • Nichols, Aidan. The Holy Eucharist: From the New Testament to Pope John Paul II. Eugene, OR: Wipf & Stock, 2011.
  • O'Connor, James T. The Hidden Manna. 2nd ed. San Francisco: Ignatius, 2005.
  • Ratzinger, Joseph. The Spirit of the Liturgy. San Francisco: Ignatius, 2000.
  • Schneider, Athanasius. Dominus est – It is the Lord! Trans. Nicholas L. Gregoris. Pine Beach, NJ: Newman House, 2008.
  • Further Required Readings are available on the Internet and linked through Populi and the interactive online syllabus posted on the professor’s website.

B. Readings available Online

4. COURSE REQUIREMENTS

  • Discussion Postings: 48% (16 at 3 points each)
  • Quizzes: 42% (14 at 3 points each)
  • Critical Review: 6%
  • Build Your Own Lesson: 4%

A. Readings

  • Read the assigned readings listed on the Course Schedule above. They will also be listed with links and files as necessary on Populi, in the “Lessons” folder for each week.
  • Read also any study notes provided in the Lessons folder for the week, and any other materials that may be linked or posted there.
  • All discussion board postings and quizzes are directly based upon the assigned readings of the week and any other materials that may be linked or posted in the weekly Lessons folder.

B. Discussion Board Postings

  • Post on the Discussion forum of Populi at least three (3) times each week.
  • First, post at least one answer to one of the discussion prompts posted in the Lessons folder or on the syllabus. Discussion prompts are questions or topics proposed for the purposes of basing our conversations on the week’s materials. Complete answers require a minimum of one well-structured paragraph.
    • Since this course does not require any research papers, on occasion discussion prompts will require research beyond the assigned readings for the course. The instructions on Populi will clearly indicate when this is expected.
  • Second, post at least one response to the entries of your classmates. Responses to classmates can provide brief follow-up questions, make additional points, or politely offer alternative responses. Responses do not need to be more than one or two sentences.
  • Each of your posts should include at least one reference to or quotation from one of the assigned readings for the week. You may cite your sources in a manner of your own choosing, so long as you are consistent.
  • You are invited but not required to continue following the class discussion and to make further contributions after your three required postings.
  • Both your answer and your response must be posted by 11:59 p.m. on the last day of the week­. It is highly recommended, however, that answers be posted at least several days before the due date; this provides more opportunity for student interaction. Late postings will not receive any credit.
    • Dr Van Slyke allows 8 days for each week. For this class, the “last day of the week” is counted as the same Monday that the next week begins. For example, if Week 3 begins on Monday June 3rd, then the final day for posting materials and taking the quiz for Week 3 is Monday June 10th (by 11:59 p.m.). Monday June 10th is also considered as the first day of Week 4.
  • See the HACS “Grading Criteria for Online Discussions.”

C. Critical Reviews

  • By the end of Week 8 of the course, each student must submit a critical review of a scholarly article in the “Critical Reviews” discussion forum.
    • If you do not know how to find scholarly articles through Holy Apostles’ subscription only databases, contact the librarian.
    • Blog entries do not count as “scholarly articles” for the purpose of this assignment.
  • Goal of assignment. This assignment is an exercise in critically appropriating secondary or scholarly works. The first purpose of the assignment is to develop skill in discerning what is worthwhile and what is not in secondary literature on the Eucharist. The discussion of the works during also will introduce all students to the influence, scope, strengths, and weaknesses of the chosen examples of secondary literature.
  • Choose a peer-reviewed, scholarly article devoted to the Eucharist that is not assigned for this course.
    • No two students may review the same article.
    • Submit your choice as soon as possible on the “Critical Reviews” discussion forum.
    • For purposes of this assignment, documents by the magisterium or by saints and doctors of the Church are NOT scholarly articles.
  • Obtain the article. The student is responsible for acquiring a copy of the article.
  • Method
    • A critical review must demonstrate thorough appropriation of the work chosen along with insight and, where appropriate, criticism.
    • A critical review must demonstrate thorough appropriation of the work chosen along with insight and, where appropriate, criticism.
    • Questions to be asked include:
      • Who is the author?
      • What is the author’s thesis?
      • What is the author’s purpose or goal (stated or unstated)?
      • What sources does the author use?
      • Is the author’s argumentation sound (in other words, are there any leaps in logic, guiding assumptions, etc.)?
      • Does the author betray any noteworthy biases or presuppositions that affect the argument?
      • What can a reader expect to find in this work?
      • What is the audience for the book, intended or unintended?
  • Do not be intimidated by scholarly works. Judge them on their own terms.
  • Merely summarizing the work is insufficient. Moreover, the student should take care that summarizing the work, if that is desirable, does not take up too much time, effort, and space.
  • Submission. When you have finished your critical review, submit it on the “Critical Reviews” forum (the same forum where you announced your choice of a work to review).
  • Discussion.
    • The “Critical Reviews” discussion forum is a required forum for the course, although it is not assigned to any particular week. You may participate in the conversation on this forum at any point from Week 8 until the end of the course.
    • On the “Critical Reviews” forum, be sure to address all comments and questions that the professor or other students may pose regarding your critical review or the work that you reviewed.
  • Formatting specifications:
    • Four (4) pages, doubled spaced, 1-inch margins, 12 pt. Times New Roman font.

D. Build Your Own Lesson

  • By the end of Week 12, submit a passage of between one and five pages from any doctor or saint of the Church who lived before the year 1900. The doctor or saint must be discussing eucharistic theology in the passage.
    • Choose a passage that you found so enlightening or inspirational that you wanted to share it with others.
    • You may edit out of the passage any discussion that does not pertain to the Eucharist. If you do, indicate omitted material with ellipses and ensure that your edited version makes sense.
    • Do not choose a passage that is anywhere in our class assignments or notes. With this assignment, you will make a contribution to the course materials.
    • Passages from any authors who are not doctors or saints will not be accepted for this assignment.
  • Write an introduction to the passage similar to the types of introductions that O’Connor provides in his text. The introduction should include brief biographical information regarding the author and a brief description of the significance of the passage from the perspective of eucharistic theology.
  • Provide two discussion prompts to spark conversation and reflection on the passage you have chosen.
  • Formatting. Your submission may be in either a Word file or an Adobe file that includes the passage, your introduction, and your discussion prompts. Be sure that you properly cite the source from which you drew your passage and any sources you used for your introduction to the passage.
  • Submission. Submit your assignment as an attachment to a post in the “Build Your Own Lesson” discussion forum, which devoted solely to the purpose of submitting these assignments. The class will discuss the assignments in the Week 15 discussion forum.

5. Course Schedule

Week 1: The Eucharist and the Old Testament: Vetustatem novitas, umbram fugat veritas

Study Notes:

“The Eucharist and the Sacrifices of the Old Testament”

Readings:

Ratzinger, “Liturgy and Life,” pp. 13-23

Ratzinger, “From Old Testament to New,” pp. 35-50

Activities:

Read the assigned readings.

Review the study notes.

Discussion A: In the discussion board titled “Introductions,” introduce yourself. Please indicate how far you are advanced in your theological studies, and why you are taking this course. Feel free to respond to the self-introductions of other members of the course.

Discussion B: In the discussion for week 1, respond directly to two or more of the discussion prompts. Respond to the postings of other students, for a minimum total of 3 postings.

Take the week 1 quiz.

Discussion Prompts:

Cardinal Ratzinger (a.k.a. Pope Benedict XVI) gave his book the same title as a famous book by Romano Guardini, The Spirit of the Liturgy. Guardini represented a theological trend of the twentieth century that approached theology from an anthropological perspective, that is, by beginning with humanity and human experience. For example, Guardini compared Sacred Liturgy to a game that children play, with rules that obviously set it apart from other human activities. From these two chapters of Ratzinger's _Spirit of the Liturgy_, what can you tell about Ratzinger's attitude toward Guardini's anthropological approach?

Where does Ratzinger look in order to develop a theology of Sacred Scripture? Name his chief sources and the method of his approach.

How, according to Ratzinger, does sacred liturgy or the understanding of it change as the chosen people moves in history through the various historical periods of the Old Testament and into the New Testament?

Discuss any sacrifice or type of sacrifice from the Old Testament mentioned on this week's study notes. Provide a biblical citation and reflect on how that sacrifice relates to the Eucharist. It might be especially helpful if you choose a sacrifice or a type of sacrifice that you have not considered in relation to the Eucharist in the past.

With a response obviously rooted in this week's materials, answer the following ignorant comment with wisdom, prudence, and charity: "The sacrifices of the Old Testament have no bearing whatsoever on the New Testament."

This prompt is for those who love Latin and research. Here is the subtitle of this week's study notes: vestutatem novitas, umbram fugat veritas. What do these words mean, what is their source, and why are they at the head of these study notes?

Week 2: The Eucharist and the New Testament: Dies enim solemnis agitur, in qua mensae prima recolitur huius institutio

Study Notes:

“The Eucharist in the New Testament”

Readings:

Nichols, “The Eucharist in the New Testament,” pp. 9-33

Activities:

Read the assigned readings.

Review the study notes.

Discussion: In the discussion for week 2, respond directly to two or more of the discussion prompts provided. Also respond to the postings of other students, for a minimum total of 3 postings.

Take the week 2 quiz.

Discussion Prompts:

Some scholars argue that the Gospel according to John lacks an account of the institution of the Eucharist because the Eucharist had no importance to the Johannine community. On the basis of this week's assigned materials, how would you respond to such an argument?

Compare and contrast the treatment of the Eucharist in any two books of the New Testament.

Discuss the entire context of the Bread of Life Discourse in chapter 6 of the Gospel according to John. What events precede the Discourse in that chapter, and how do they shed light on the Eucharist?

Was the Last Supper a Passover meal or not, and why does it matter?

What do the accounts of the multiplication of loaves and fishes have to do with the Eucharist?

Drawing at least in part from Nichols’ treatment of the question, respond to the following  assertion: “When Jesus said ‘this is my body,’ He did not intend us to understand that literally.”

Week 3: Earliest Extra-Biblical Evidence for the Eucharist

Study Notes:

“Earliest Extra-Biblical Evidence for the Eucharist”

“Text of the Hippolytan Eucharistic Prayer: Two English Translations”

Readings:

O’Connor, pp. 1-25

Activities:

Read the assigned readings.

Review the study notes.

Discussion: In the discussion for week 3, respond directly to two or more of the discussion prompts. Also respond to the postings of other students, for a minimum total of 3 postings.

Take the week 3 quiz.

Discussion Prompts:

Sometimes the difference between a lower-case letter and an upper-case letter can become a rather large theological point. Discuss how a capital or lower-case w in "word" impacts the significance of Irenaeus of Lyons' eucharistic theology. You will have to read O'Connor's footnotes to fully understand this topic.

Why is the authorship, dating, and provenance of the Apostolic Tradition significant for us today?

Discuss any significant differences between the two translations of the Apostolic Tradition included in this lesson's materials. You may also bring into this discussion translations other than the two include in this lesson.

Discuss any eucharistic theme or themes in the epistles of Ignatius of Antioch.

Compare and/or contrast on any level (structural, theological, etc.) any two of the early Christian sources addressed in this lesson's reading materials.

Week 4: The Eucharist among Early Christians

Study Notes:

“The Eucharist among Early Christians”

Readings:

O’Connor, pp. 26-77

Nichols, “The Eucharist in the Age of the Fathers,” pp. 34-57

Activities:

Read the assigned readings.

Review the study notes.

Discussion: In the discussion for week 4, respond directly to two or more of the discussion prompts. Also respond to the postings of other students, for a minimum total of 3 postings.

Take the week 4 quiz.

Discussion Prompts:

The discussions of the Fathers on the reality of the presence of Christ in the Eucharist can be divided into three categories. Discuss these categories using at least one example of a Father who uses language that falls into each category.

Discuss the three factors contribute to the use of symbolic language about the Eucharist employed by many fathers of the Church.

Compare and/or contrast the teachings of any two Fathers of the Church on the Eucharist as sacrifice.

Discuss the relationship between the Eucharist and the Church in the teaching of any one or more Father of the Church.

Reflect on the doctrinal content (both what is there and what is not there) in any substantial text from an early Christian source that O'Connor cites in this week's assigned readings.

Week 5: The First Debates: Real Presence in the Middle Ages: Dogma datur christianis, quod in carnem transit panis, et vinum in sanguinem

Study Notes:

“Eucharistic Theology in the Middle Ages: The Nature or Mode of the Real Presence”

Readings:

Nichols, “The Mediaevals on the Nature of the Real Presence,” pp. 58-75

O’Connor, pp. 83-94

Activities:

Read the assigned readings.

Review the study notes.

Discussion: In the discussion for week 5, respond directly to two or more of the discussion prompts. Also respond to the postings of other students, for a minimum total of 3 postings.  

Take the week 5 quiz

Discussion Prompts:

What is the nature of the "debate" between Paschasius and Ratramnus in the ninth century? What was at stake?

What are the differences and/or the similarities between Ratramnus and Paschasius on the question of the presence of Christ in the Eucharist?

How do Paschasius and Ratramnus use the evidence from early Christian authors discussed in the previous weeks?

What is the nature of the "debate" between Berengarius and Lanfranc in the eleventh century? What was at stake?

What are the differences and/or the similarities between Ratramnus and Paschasius on the question of the presence of Christ in the Eucharist?

How does the debate between Paschasius and Ratramnus compare with the debate between Berengarius and Lanfranc?

What does St Thomas Aquinas contribute to clarifying the notion of the Real Presence of Christ in the Eucharist?

Discuss the contribution of any pope to clarifying the Church's faith in the Real Presence during the Middle Ages.

Explain some of the key developments in sacramental theology during the middle ages which brought clarity to the various ways of speaking about the Eucharist found in the writings of the Fathers (namely, vague spiritual gift, symbolic language, and frankly realist language).

In the discussions about the Body and Blood of Christ in the Middle Ages, what role does the Most Blessed Virgin Mary play?

Clearly explain the fully developed understanding of the Real Presence found in St Thomas Aquinas.

Respond to the following ignorant but common statement: "The notion of 'transubstantiation' is too deeply rooted in medieval philosophy to be understood by people today."

Week 6: Early Medieval Theology and St Thomas: Purpose of the Real Presence: tuos ibi commensales, coheredes et sodales fac sanctorum civium

Study Notes:

“Eucharistic Theology in the Middle Ages: The Purpose of the Reao Presence and the Contribution of St Thomas Aquinas”

Readings:

Nichols, “The Mediaevals on the Purpose of the Real Presence,” pp. 76-86

O’Connor, pp. 193-206

Activities:

Read the assigned readings.

Review the study notes.

Discussion: In the discussion for week 6, respond directly to two or more of the discussion prompts. Also respond to the postings of other students, for a minimum total of 3 postings.

Take the Week 6 quiz.

Discussion Prompts:

What is the purpose of the Eucharist? Be sure to reference this week's materials in your response.

What is the difference between receiving communion spiritually and receiving communion bodily only, and why does this distinction still matter today?

Compare and contrast the two 'rationales' for the presence of Christ in the Most Holy Sacrament of the Altar in the Middle Ages.

Explain the distinctions of the "inner sacrament" and how they help us to understand the nature and purpose of the Eucharist, as well as the language that the tradition uses to discuss the Eucharist.

Reflect on the theological teachings behind any eucharistic hymn composed by St Thomas Aquinas.

Discuss the purpose of the real presence according to St Thomas Aquinas.

What explains the decrease in reception of holy communion that appears to have taken place in the Middle Ages?

Read carefully Pope Urban IV's bull Transiturus (quoted at length by O'Connor) and discuss what it contains.

Explain how the effects of the Mass are shared in different "degrees."

Week 7: Berengarius and His Legacy: Quod non capis, quod non vides, animosa firmat fides, praeter rerum ordinem

Study Notes:

“Berengarius and His Legacy: Dissolution and Development in Eucharistic Theology”

Readings:

O’Connor, pp. 95-130

Ratzinger, “The Reservation of the Blessed Sacrament,” pp. 85-91

Activities:

Read the assigned readings.

Review the study notes.

Discussion: In the discussion for week 7, respond directly to two or more of the discussion prompts. Also respond to the postings of other students, for a minimum total of 3 postings.

Take the week 7 quiz

Discussion Prompts:

What is the legacy of Berengarius of Tours?

Compare and/or contrast the teaching of Berengarius of Tours on the presence of Christ in the sacrament of the altar with the teaching of Wycliff and/or Hus.

In the history of eucharistic theology, how do some with erroneous opinions witness to the sensus fidelium?

What are the positions of the people whom Guitmund of Aversa calls "Berengarians"?

Discuss Guitmund of Aversa's contribution to eucharistic theology.

Explain the various possible explanations of the change in the bread and wine that had been proposed by the time that Lateran IV met.

Using at least one direct quotation, discuss the eucharistic theology of Alan of Lille.

What factors contributed to the dissolution of theology in general and of eucharistic theology in pariticular in the fourteenth century?

Although Duns Scotus and William of Ockham espoused the correct theology of the change in the bread and wine at the Mass, there was something problematic in how they articulated that theology. What was the problem with their theological method?

Following Cardinal Ratzinger, explain the development and significance of the tabernacle.

On the basis of this week's materials, respond to the following ignorant but common statement: "The Eucharist is for eating, not looking at."

How is the Tabernacle the fulfillment of what the Ark of the Covenant represented?

Week 8: The Eucharist in Protestant Thought and Practice: vere panis filiorum, non mittendus canibus

Study Notes:

“Protestant Opinions on the Eucharist: From the Founders to the Twentieth Century”

“Protestant Opinions on the Eucharist” [chart]

Readings:

O’Connor, pp. 130-152

Luther’s German Mass (in English translation)

Activities:

Submit your critical review as an attachment in the “Critical Review” discussion forum.

Discussion: In the discussion for week 8, respond directly to two or more of the discussion prompts. Also respond to the postings of other students, for a minimum total of 3 postings.

Take the week 8 quiz.

Discussion Prompts:

Name and explain the “captivities” of the Eucharist which Martin Luther attacks.

Discuss the nature of the debate between Luther and Zwingli on the Eucharist, and how it influenced subsequent developments in Protestant eucharistic theology.

Compare and contrast the opinions on the Eucharist of among various Protestant groups (drawing at least in part from this week's materials) and compare and contrast those opinions with any you have heard in Catholic circles.

Explain how Anglicanism represents a compromise between various positions of Protestants and Catholics regarding the Eucharist.

Discuss Luther's revision of the Mass in relation to his Babylonian Captivity.

Compare and contrast Luther's liturgical revisions with Zwingli's liturgical revisions.

Why does Luther so vehemently attack the Canon of the Mass?

In the history of eucharistic theology, how do some with erroneous opinions witness to the sensus fidelium? [Yes, you saw this question in the previous lesson. Now you have more information to answer it more fully!]

Week 9: The Eucharist at the Council of Trent: A sumente non concisus, non confractus, non divisus: integer accipitur

Study Notes:

“The Council of Trent and the Eucharist”

Readings:

Council of Trent, Session 13: Decree Concerning the Most Holy Sacrament of the Eucharist

Council of Trent, Session 21: The Doctrine of Communion Under Both Kinds and the Communion of Little Children

Council of Trent , Session 22: Doctrine Concerning the Sacrifice of the Mass

Nichols, “The Eucharistic Sacrifice from Trent to the Nineteenth Century,” pp. 87-93 only

Recommended: O’Connor, pp. 207-236

Activities:

Read the assigned readings.

Review the study notes.

Discussion: In the discussion for week 9, respond directly to two or more of the discussion prompts. Also respond to the postings of other students, for a minimum total of 3 postings.

Take the week 9 quiz.

Discussion Prompts:

Using one or two quotations as examples, explain how the Council of Trent reflects the teaching of any earlier Father or Doctor or Pope whom we have addressed in this class.

Discuss how the Council of Trent directly responds to the eucharistic teaching of one or more Protestant authority addressed in the previous lesson.

How does the Council of Trent explain the Eucharist as a sacrifice, and what difference does this make on the practical or pastoral level?

Compare and contrast the attitude of the Council of Trent toward the Canon of the Mass with the attitude of one or more Protestant authority toward the Canon of the Mass. Explain the similarities or differences.

What did you read in the documents of the Council of Trent that you did NOT expect to find there?

What does the Council of Trent teach about the reception of holy communion under both species, and why?

What questions about the Eucharist remain unanswered by the Council of Trent?

Week 10: Eucharistic Theology after Trent

Study Notes:

“Eucharistic Theology after Trent”

Readings:

Nichols, “The Eucharistic Sacrifice from Trent to the Nineteenth Century,” pp. 93-101 only

Nichols, “Catholic Eucharistic Theology in the Twentieth Century,” pp. 102-119

Activities:

Read the assigned readings.

Review the study notes.

Discussion: In the discussion for week 10, respond directly to two or more of the discussion prompts. Also respond to the postings of other students, for a minimum total of 3 postings.

Take the week 10 quiz.

Discussion Prompts:

If the sacrament of the altar is a sign or symbol of the sacrifice of Christ on the cross, exactly how does the Mass symbolize Christ's death on the cross? Be sure to draw on post-Tridentine theological reflections in your answer.

Discuss the various theories of exactly how the Eucharist is sacrificial in nature. Which theory do you find most convincing or helpful?

Drawing from Nichols' discussion of post-Tridentine theology, explain the relation of the Eucharist to the glorified Christ.

Drawing from Nichols discussion of post-Tridentine theology, explain in what sense the celebrant of the Mass has the power to apply the fruits of the sacrifice.

What did Jansenists teach about the Mass?

Discuss any twentieth-century contribution to eucharistic theology mentioned by Nichols that you find either: (a) particularly edifying and enlightening; or (b) particularly dangerous or disturbing.

Compare and/or contrast the theories of trans-finalization and trans-signification.

Week 11: Leo XIII and St Pius X: The Disposition for and Effects of the Gift of Holy Communion

Study Notes:

“The Eucharist in the Pontificates of Leo XIII and Pius X: Effects of Mass and Reception of Holy Communion”

Readings:

Pope Leo XIII, Encyclical on the Holy Eucharist Mirae caritatis (18 May 1902)

Sacred Congregation of Rites, Decree on Frequent and Daily Eucharistic Communion Sacra Tridentina synodus (20 December 1905)

Sacred Congregation of the Discipline of the Sacraments, Decree on First Communion Quam singulari (8 August 1910)

Activities:

Read the assigned readings.

Review the study notes.

Discussion: In the discussion for week 11, respond directly to two or more of the discussion prompts. Also respond to the postings of other students, for a minimum total of 3 postings.

Take the week 11 quiz.

Discussion Prompts:

Explain what you found to be the most edifying or surprising teaching in Pope Leo XIII’s Mirae caritatis.

How would you explain participation in the Eucharist on the basis of Pope Leo XIII’s Mirae caritatis?

Take any title given to the Eucharist in this week’s readings and explain the title’s meaning, context, and the way that the magisterium uses that title to illuminate or explain the mystery of the Most Holy Sacrament.

Pay close attention to the exact phrases and words that Pope Leo XIII uses to discuss the Eucharist. How might Pope Leo XIII’s language inform and influence your own language as you discuss and write about this Sacrament? Be specific with regard to terminology.

Compare and/or contrast the purpose and/or content of Mirae caritatis and Sacra Tridentina synodus.

What is the purpose of Quam singulari, and how does the document accomplish this purpose?

On the basis of this week’s readings and with specific references to those readings, discuss the benefits or fruits of the Eucharist.

What does the magisterium under Pope Pius X teach about the dispositions that are necessary for the reception of Holy Communion?

What does the magisterium under Pope Pius X teach about the age at which one should or must receive Holy Communion? How does this build upon or further clarify the Council of Trent’s discussion of the same topic?

Why is Pope St Pius X sometimes called “the pope of the Eucharist”?

This topic is beyond the scope of this week’s assigned readings, and so requires a little extra research.  Provide a brief report on either the most recent or the upcoming International Congress on the Eucharist. Alternatively, if you have every attended an International Congress on the Eucharist, please discuss that Congress and report your experiences there.

Week 12: A Pope and a Council on the Eucharist: Pius XII and Vatican II

Study Notes:

“Pius XII and the Second Vatican Council on the Eucharist”

Readings:

Pope Pius XII, Encyclical on the Sacred Liturgy Mediator Dei (20 November 1947) §§1-13, 66-135

Second Vatican Council, Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy Sacrosanctum concilium (4 December 1963) §§1-13, 47-58

Recommended: O’Connor, pp. 251-260

Activities:

Read the assigned readings.

Review the study notes.

Discussion: In the discussion for week 12, respond directly to two or more of the discussion prompts. Also respond to the postings of other students, for a minimum total of 3 postings.

Take the week 12 quiz.

Submit the “Build Your Own Lesson” assignment.

Discussion Prompts:

Discuss Pope Pius XII’s attitude toward the liturgical movement of the mid-twentieth century. Does he endorse it, censor it, or both? Explain your answer.

Pay close attention to the exact phrases and words that Pope Pius XII uses to discuss the Eucharist. How might Pope Pius X’s language inform and influence your own language as you discuss and write about this Sacrament? Be specific with regard to terminology.

What does Pope Pius XII teach about the disposition of the faithful when they receive Holy Communion? How does this compare with the teachings of the magisterium on the same topic under Pope St Pius X?

Why does Pope Pius emphasize Christ’s role as “Mediator between God and man” in his encyclical on the sacred liturgy in general and the Eucharist in particular?

How, according to Pope Pius XII, is the Mass the same sacrifice offered by Christ on Calvary?

How does Pope Pius XII define “Eucharist”? How does the Second Vatican Council define “Eucharist”?

What did you find in the Second Vatican Council’s Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy that you did not expect to find? Explain.

What did you not find in the Second Vatican Council’s Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy that you expected to find? Explain.

Compare and/or contrast Sacrosanctum concilium with Mediator Dei.

Some have said that “the mind of the Second Vatican Council is the mind of Pope Pius XII.” After reading Mediator Dei and Sacrosanctum concilium, do you find any justification for that assertion?

Week 13: Eucharistic Doctrinal Formulae and the Institutio generalis

Study Notes:

“Pope Paul VI’s Mysterium fidei

Readings:

Pope Paul VI, Encyclical on the Holy Eucharist Mysterium fidei (3 September 1965), entire

O’Connor, pp. 260-267

General Instruction on the Roman Missal §§1-111

Activities:

Discussion: In the discussion for week 13, respond directly to two or more of the discussion prompts. Also respond to the postings of other students, for a minimum total of 3 postings.

Take the week 13 quiz.

Discussion Prompts:

Why did Pope Paul VI write Mysterium fidei? Be specific in your response.

How does Mysterium fidei relate to previous teachings of the magisterium on the Eucharist?

Comment on the role of doctrinal formulae in the mind of Pope Paul VI as expressed in Mysterium fidei.

According to Pope Paul VI, in what sense is the presence of Christ in the Eucharist called the “Real Presence”?

What, according to Pope Paul VI, are the various modes of Christ’s presence in the Church, and does the presence in the Eucharist differ from other modes in any way?

What impermissible opinions that threaten eucharistic adoration does Pope Paul VI address in his encyclical on that topic? Discuss one or two such opinions and provide Pope Paul VI's corrective(s).

What did you find in the General Instruction on the Roman Missal that you did not expect to find?

What did you not find in the General Instruction on the Roman Missal that you expected to find?

What questions did you have or have you heard about the celebration of Mass that are answered in the General Instruction on the Roman Missal? Explain.

What doctrinal formulae are expressed in the General Instruction on the Roman Missal? Have you seen these formulae in other readings from this course?

What, according to Pope Paul VI, is the significance of the worship or adoration of the eucharistic species?

Week 14: The Reception of Holy Communion: Ecce Panis Angelorum, factus cibus viatorum

Study Notes:

“Issues Regarding the Reception of Holy Communion”

Readings:

Sacred Congregation for Divine Worship, Instruction on the Manner of Distributing Holy Communion Memoriale Domini (29 May 1969)

Schneider, Dominus est – It Is the Lord! [entire]

Recommended: Sacred Congregation for the Sacraments and Divine Worship, Instruction Concerning Worship of the Eucharistic Mystery Inaestimabile Donum (17 April 1980)

Recommended: Sacred Congregation of the Sacraments, On Facilitating Reception of Communion in Certain Circumstances Immensae caritatis (29 January 1973)

Activities:

Read the assigned readings.

Review the study notes.

Discussion: In the discussion for week 14, respond directly to two or more of the discussion prompts. Also respond to the postings of other students, for a minimum total of 3 postings.

Take the week 14 quiz.

Discussion Prompts:

How does Bishop Athanasius Schneider's discussion of the 'Eucharistic' women of the Soviet underground help you to appreciate the Gift of the Eucharist?

Discuss and comment any liturgical practices from the past or the present that you found particularly striking in Bishop Schneider's book?

Comment on the testimony of Eastern Churches, or even Protestant communities, regarding the holiness of the Eucharist.

In light of this week's materials, discuss the danger of antiquarianism as it touches upon the manner of reception of the Most Holy Sacrament.

How does Pope Paul VI want people to receive holy communion?

What is the general preference of the magisterium for the reception of holy communion as evident in the magisterial documents that we read this week, or any others that you would like to mention?

What, according to Memoriale Domini, is the "traditional" practice of distributing holy communion, and why is that practice preferable?

Have you witnessed any abuses that are mentioned in Redemptionis Sacramentum or Inaestimabile Donum? If so, how has your understanding of the abuses, ecclesiastical law, and/or what is at stake changed in the light of this week's readings?

Consider any magisterial directive on this week's study notes. Look at the original document, and explain the theological reasoning underlying that directive.

What exactly does the magisterium teach regarding the reception of holy communion under both species?

Week 15: Build Your Own Lesson

Study Notes:

To be provided by students.

Readings:

To be provided by students.

Activities:

To be provided by students. The professor will post them in the Week 15 lessons folder.

Discussion: In the discussion for week 15, respond directly to two or more of the discussion prompts provided by your fellow students. Also respond to the postings of other students, for a minimum total of 3 postings.

There is no quiz this week.

Discussion Prompts:

To be provided by students.

Note

The professor reserves the right to make changes, substitutions, or deletions to the schedule of topics and readings.

6. SUGGESTED READINGS and RESOURCES

A. Magisterial Documents:

  • Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments. Fifth Instruction “For the Right Implementation of the Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy of the Second Vatican Council” Liturgiam authenticam. 28 March 2001.
  • Congregatio de Cultu Divino et Disciplina Sacramentorum. Compendium eucharisticum. Vatican City: Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 2009.
  • Enchiridion documentorum instaurationis liturgicae. 2 vols. Rome: CLV – Edizioni Liturgiche, 1990. See also Documents on the Liturgy 1963-1979: Conciliar, Papal, and Curial Texts. Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press, 1982.
  • General Instruction on the Roman Missal. Liturgy Documentary Series 2. Washington DC: USCCB, 2003.
  • Bishops’ Committee on the Liturgy, USCCB. Introduction to the Order of Mass: A Pastoral Resource of the Bishops’ Committee on the Liturgy. Washington DC: USCCB, 2003.
  • Pope Benedict XVI. Apostolic Letter/Motu Proprio Summorum pontificum. 7 July 2007.
  • Pope Benedict XVI. Post-Synodal Apostolic Exhortation on the Eucharist as the Source and Summit of the Church’s Life and Mission Sacramentum caritatis. 22 February 2007.
  • Pope John Paul II. Apostolic Letter on Keeping the Lord’s Day Holy Dies Domini. 31 May 1998.
  • Pope John Paul II. Encyclical Letter on the Eucharist in Its Relationship to the Church Ecclesia de Eucharistia. 17 April 2003.
  • Pope John Paul II. Letter on the Mystery and Worship of the Eucharist Dominicae cenae. 24 February 1980.
  • Pope Paul VI. Apostolic Constitution Missale Romanum. 3 April 1969.
  • Sacred Congregation of Rites. Decree on Frequent and Daily Eucharistic Communion Sacra Tridentina synodus. 20 December 1905.

B. Secondary Sources:

  • Aillet, Marc. The Old Mass and the New: Explaining the Motu proprio Summorum pontificum of Pope Benedict XVI. Ignatius, 2010.
  • Aquilina, Mike. The Mass of the Early Christians. 2nd ed. Huntington, IN: Our Sunday Visitor, 2007.
  • Auer, Johann, and Joseph Ratzinger. Dogmatic Theology 6: A General Doctrine of the Sacraments and the Mystery of the Eucharist. Washington DC: Catholic University of America Press, 1995.
  • Belmonte, Charles. Understanding the Mass: Its Relevance to Daily Life. Princeton, NJ: Scepter, 1989.
  • Bugnini, Annibale. The Reform of the Roman Liturgy (1948-1975). Liturgical Press, 1990.
  • De la Taille, Maurice. The Mystery of Faith: Regarding the Most August Sacrament and Sacrifice of the Body and Blood of Christ. 2 vols. New York: Sheed & Ward, 1940.
  • Dobszay, László. The Restoration and Organic Development of the Roman Rite. T&T Clark, 2010.
  • Gaudoin-Parker, Michael L., ed. The Real Presence Through the Ages: Jesus Adored in the Sacrament of the Altar. New York: Alba House, 1993.
  • Gorevan, Patrick. “O Sacrum Convivium – St Thomas on the Eucharist.” New Blackfriars 90 (2009) 659-664.
  • Groeschel, Benedict J., and James Monti. In the Presence of Our Lord: The History, Theology, and Psychology of Eucharistic Devotion. Huntington IN: Our Sunday Visitor, 1997.
  • Harper, John. The Forms and Orders of Western Liturgy: A Historical Introduction and Guide for Students and Musicians. Clarendon Press, 1997.
  • Jasper, R.C.D., and G. Cuming. Prayers of the Eucharist; Early and Reformed. Pueblo, 1987.
  • Jungmann, J. The Mass of the Roman Rite: Its Origins and Development (Missarum Solemnia). 2 vols. Benziger, 1951. Reprinted Christian Classics, 1986. Also available in a one-volume edition.
  • Kereszty, Roch A. Wedding Feast of the Lamb: Eucharistic Theology from a Historical, Biblical, and Systematic Perspective. Chicago: LTP/Hillenbrand Books, 2004.
  • Kocik, Thomas. The Reform of the Reform? A Liturgical Debate: Reform or Return. Ignatius, 2003.
  • Martimort, Aimé Georges, et al., eds. The Church at Prayer: An Introduction to the Liturgy, vol. 2, The Eucharist. Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press, 1986.King, Archdale A. Liturgies of the Primatial Sees. Longmans, 1957.
  • Mazza, Enrico. The Celebration of the Eucharist: The Origin of the Rite and the Development of Its Interpretation. Collegeville MN: Liturgical Press, 1999.
  • Nichols, Aidan. The Holy Eucharist: From the New Testament to Pope John Paul II. The Oscott Series 6. Dublin: Veritas, 1991.
  • O’Connor, James T. The Hidden Manna. 2nd ed. Ignatius, 2005.
  • Palazzo, Eric. A History of Liturgical Books: From the Beginning to the Thirteenth Century. Trans. Madeleine Beaumont. Liturgical Press, 1998.
  • Pristas, Lauren. Collects of the Roman Missal: A Study in Liturgical Reform. T&T Clark, 201
  • Ratzinger, Joseph. Feast of Faith. San Francisco: Ignatius, 1986.
  • Serra, Dominic E. “The Roman Canon: The Theological Significance of its Structure and Syntax.” Ecclesia Orans 20 (2003): 99-128.
  • Taft, Robert. The Byzantine Rite: A Short History. Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press, 1992.
  • Von Hildebrand, Dietrich. Liturgy and Personality. Manchester, NH: Sophia Institute, 1986.
  • Vonier, Anscar. A Key to the Doctrine of the Eucharist. Dexter MI: Zaccheus, 2003-2004.

7. EVALUATION

Students who have difficulty with research and composition are encouraged to pursue assistance with the Online Writing Lab (available at http://www.holyapostles.edu/owl).

GRADING SCALE:

A 94-100; A- 90-93; B+ 87-89; B 84-86; B- 80-83; C+ 77-79; C 74-76; C- 70-73 60-69; F 59 and below

Grading Rubric for the Major Papers and Discussion Board (DB) Postings

0 pts. – Paper
0 pts. – DB Posting;

3 pts. – Paper
2 pts. – DB Posting;

6 pts. – Paper
4 pts. – DB Posting;

9 pts. – Paper
6 pts. – DB Posting;

12 pts. – Paper
8 pts. – DB Posting;

15 pts. – Paper
10 pts. – DB Posting;

CONTENT

Absence of Understanding

Analysis shows no awareness of the discipline or its methodologies as the relate to the topic

Lack of Understanding

Analysis seems to misunderstand some basic concepts of the discipline or lacks ability to articulate them.

Inadequate understanding

Analysis is sometimes unclear in understanding or articulating concepts of the discipline.

Adequate understanding

Analysis demonstrates an understanding of basic concepts of the discipline but could express them with greater clarity.

Solid Understanding

Analysis demonstrates a clear understanding and articulation of concepts with some sense of their wider implications.

Insightful understanding

Analysis clearly demonstrates an understanding and articulation of concepts of the discipline as they relate to the topic; highlights connec-tions to other con-cepts; integrates concepts into wider contexts.

RESEARCH

Missing Research

Paper shows no evidence of research: citation of sources missing.

Inadequate research and/or documentation

Over-reliance on few sources; spotty documentation of facts in text; pattern of citation errors.

Weak research and/or documentation

Inadequate number or quality of sources; many facts not referenced; several errors in citation format.

Adequate research and documentation but needs improvement

Good choice of sources but could be improved with some additions or better selection; did not always cite sources; too many citation errors.

Solid research and documentation

A number of relevant scholarly sources revealing solid research; sources appropriately referenced in paper; only a few minor citation errors

Excellent critical research and documentation

Critically selected and relevant scholarly sources demonstrating extensive, in-depth research; sources skillfully incorporated into paper at all necessary points; all citations follow standard bibliographic format

WRITING & EXPRESSION

Incomplete writing

Analysis is only partially written or completely misses the topic

Writing difficult to understand, serious improvement needed

Analysis fails to address the topic; confusing organization or development; little elaboration of position; insufficient control of sentence structure and vocabulary; unacceptable number of errors in grammar, mechanics, and usage

Episodic writing, a mix of strengths and weaknesses.

Analysis noticeably neglects or misinterprets the topic; simplistic or repetitive treatment, only partially-internalized; weak organization and development, some meandering; simple sentences, below-level diction; distracting errors in grammar, mechanics, and usage

Acceptable writing, but could use some sharpening of skill

Analysis is an uneven response to parts of the topic; somewhat conventional treatment; satisfactory organization, but more development needed; adequate syntax and diction, but could use more vigor; overall control of grammar, mechanics, and usage, but some errors

Solid writing, with something interesting to say.

Analysis is an adequate response to the topic; some depth and complexity in treatment; persuasive organization and development, with suitable reasons and examples; level-appropriate syntax and diction; mastery of grammar, mechanics, and usage, with hardly any error

Command-level writing, making a clear impression

Analysis is a thorough response to the topic; thoughtful and insightful examination of issues; compelling organization and development ; superior syntax and diction; error-free grammar, mechanics, and usage

COMMUNITY INTERACTION

Inadequate response

Response merely provides laudatory encouragement for original post, e.g., “Excellent post! You really have thought of something there.”

Poor response

Response misses the point of the original posting

Weak response

Response summarizes original posting to which it responds

Acceptable response

Response makes a contribution to the posting to which it responds

Individually-conscious contributory response

Response makes a contribution to the posting to which it responds and fosters its development

Community-conscious contributory response

Response makes a contribution to the learning community and fosters its development

8. DISABILITIES ACCOMMODATIONS POLICY

Holy Apostles College & Seminary is committed to the goal of achieving equal educational opportunities and full participation in higher education for persons with disabilities who qualify for admission to the College. Students enrolled in online courses who have documented disabilities requiring special accommodations should contact Bob Mish, the Director of Online Student Affairs, at rmish@holyapostles.edu or 860-632-3015. In all cases, reasonable accommodations will be made to ensure that all students with disabilities have access to course materials in a mode in which they can receive them. Students who have technological limitations (e.g., slow Internet connection speeds in convents) are asked to notify their instructors the first week of class for alternative means of delivery.

9. ACADEMIC HONESTY POLICY

Students at Holy Apostles College & Seminary are expected to practice academic honesty.

Avoiding Plagiarism

In its broadest sense, plagiarism is using someone else's work or ideas, presented or claimed as your own. At this stage in your academic career, you should be fully conscious of what it means to plagiarize. This is an inherently unethical activity because it entails the uncredited use of someone else's expression of ideas for another's personal advancement; that is, it entails the use of a person merely as a means to another person’s ends.

Students:

  • Should identify the title, author, page number/webpage address, and publication date of works when directly quoting small portions of texts, articles, interviews, or websites.
  • Students should not copy more than two paragraphs from any source as a major component of papers or projects.
  • Should appropriately identify the source of information when paraphrasing (restating) ideas from texts, interviews, articles, or websites.
  • Should follow the Holy Apostles College & Seminary Stylesheet (available on the Online Writing Lab’s website at http://www.holyapostles.edu/owl/resources).

Consequences of Academic Dishonesty:

Because of the nature of this class, academic dishonesty is taken very seriously. Students participating in academic dishonesty may be removed from the course and from the program.

10. ATTENDANCE POLICY

Even though you are not required to be logged in at any precise time or day, you are expected to login several times during each week. Because this class is being taught entirely in a technology-mediated forum, it is important to actively participate each week in the course. In a traditional classroom setting for a 3-credit course, students would be required, per the federal standards, to be in class three 50-minute sessions (or 2.5 hours a week) and prepare for class discussions six 50-minute sessions (or 5 hours) a week. Expect to devote at least nine 50-minute sessions (or 7.5 quality hours) a week to this course. A failure on the student’s part to actively participate in the life of the course may result in a reduction of the final grade.

11. INCOMPLETE POLICY

An Incomplete is a temporary grade assigned at the discretion of the faculty member. It is typically allowed in situations in which the student has satisfactorily completed major components of the course and has the ability to finish the remaining work without re-enrolling, but has encountered extenuating circumstances, such as illness, that prevent his or her doing so prior to the last day of class.

To request an incomplete, distance-learning students must first download a copy of the Incomplete Request Form. This document is located within the Shared folder of the Files tab in Populi. Secondly, students must fill in any necessary information directly within the PDF document. Lastly, students must send their form to their professor via email for approval. “Approval” should be understood as the professor responding to the student’s email in favor of granting the “Incomplete” status of the student.

Students receiving an Incomplete must submit the missing course work by the end of the sixth week following the semester in which they were enrolled. An incomplete grade (I) automatically turns into the grade of “F” if the course work is not completed.

Students who have completed little or no work are ineligible for an incomplete. Students who feel they are in danger of failing the course due to an inability to complete course assignments should withdraw from the course.

A “W” (Withdrawal) will appear on the student’s permanent record for any course dropped after the end of the first week of a semester to the end of the third week. A “WF” (Withdrawal/Fail) will appear on the student’s permanent record for any course dropped after the end of the third week of a semester and on or before the Friday before the last week of the semester.

12. ABOUT YOUR PROFESSOR

Daniel G. Van Slyke, S.T.L., Ph.D. is Associate Dean of Online Learning at Holy Apostles College and Seminary. He has taught and researched at Caldwell College in New Jersey, the Liturgical Institute of the University of St Mary of the Lake in Illinois, Ave Maria College in Michigan, Kenrick-Glennon Seminary in St Louis, Missouri, the University of Dallas in Texas, Catholic Distance University, and the programs of formation for permanent diaconate candidates in St Louis and in Tulsa, Oklahoma. Holding certificates in online teaching through the Catholic Distance Learning Network, Dr Van Slyke also helps to train other theological teaching faculty in the use of pedagogical technology.

With degrees in historical theology (Ph.D., Saint Louis University), systematic sacramental theology (S.T.L., Mundelein Seminary), and moral theology (M.A., University of Dallas), Dr Van Slyke has made numerous contributions to scholarship. His articles have appeared in various venues, including Antiphon: A Journal for Liturgical Renewal, Dumbarton Oaks Papers, Ephemerides Liturgicae, The Josephinum Journal of Theology, New Blackfriars, Providence, Usus Antiquior, The New Catholic Encyclopedia (2nd ed. and Supplement), and The New Westminster Dictionary of Church History. Ligouri Press published his popular book, Liturgy 101: Sacraments and Sacramentals.

An active member in several professional organizations, Dr Van Slyke has delivered numerous papers at scholarly conferences and workshops. For eight years he sat as an elected member on the board of directors of the Society for Catholic Liturgy. For five years he served on the editorial staff of Antiphon: A Journal for Liturgical Renewal, and he currently serves on the advisory boards of Antiphon, Ephemerides Liturgicae and Seminary Journal.

Dr. Van Slyke lives in the Dallas-Ft Worth area of the great state of Texas with his wife and their seven children.

(860) 632-3010